Are stem cells the link between bacteria and cancer?

Is there A link between stem cells, bacteria and cancer?

 

Scientists have long believed that an increase in stem cell turnover plays a part in the development of cancer, and now new research has uncovered findings that could strengthen the link.

A study was carried out by the Max Planck Institute in Berlin in conjunction with researchers in Stanford, California, and examined the presence of bacteria and it’s impact on stem cell regeneration. The survival rate for stomach cancer is low, mainly because patients don’t present any symptoms until the cancer has reached an advanced stage. Stomach cancer, or gastric cancer, is caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is naturally present in all humans. However, this bacteria acts differently to tumour viruses, leaving scientists in the dark as to how they actually cause cancer. The new research has revealed that this bacterium “sends stem cell renewal in the stomach into overdrive”, a discovery that could open doors to further understanding the cause and therefore treatment of stomach cancer.

About the research

The study confirmed that in the majority of cases, patients with most  stomach cancer experience chronic infections with H. pylori bacterium.

Prof. Dr. Thomas F. Meyer specialises in molecular biology, and worked alongside

fellow researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin. Having spent many years examining the impact H. pylori has on the stomach’s epithelium cells, the team were in search of answers as to why cancer was able to form in an environment in which cells are being replenished so rapidly. As stem cells are the longest living cells in the stomach, the researchers began their search for answers here. While it had previously been believed that H. pylori affected only the rapidly-replaced surface cells, but the research revealed that the bacteria managed to infiltrate the stem cells, causing them to rapidly multiply.

The team arrived at this conclusion following tracing the behaviour of two different types of stem cells in the stomach of mice. According to Science News Online:

Both respond to a signalling molecule called Wnt, which maintains stem cell turnover in many adult tissues. Crucially, they discovered that myofibroblast cells in the connective tissue layer directly underneath the glands produce a second stem cell driver signal, R-spondin, to which the two stem cell populations responded differently. It is this signal, which turned out to control the response to H. pylori: Following infection, the signal is ramped up, silencing the more slowly cycling stem cell population and putting the faster cycling stem cell population into overdrive.

According to one of the study authors and clinical scientist Michael Sigal, these results substantiate the theory that chronic bacterial infections are strongly linked with cases of stomach. “Our findings show that an infectious bacterium can increase stem cell turnover,” he says. “Since H. pylori causes lifelong infections, the constant increase in stem cell divisions may be enough to explain the increased risk of carcinogenesis observed.”

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Regenerative Medicine Market projected to reach $5.5 Billion

According to analysis found in a new report, “Regenerative Medicine Market, 2014 – 2025”, the global regenerative medicine market size is expected to reach USD 5.59 billion in just eight years.

This high rate of growth is being attributed in part to the increased global geriatric age, with the World Health Organization now revealing the average life expectancy to be 71.4 years (2015). This is in addition to the increased prevalence of Neurodegenerative disorders, along with Orthopedic and other aging-related disorders. As biotechnology has advanced to seek treatments for these and other illnesses, this has lead to increased investment in the field. The biotechnology has so far enabled scientists to garner more in-depth knowledge of cell division, differentiation and mutation, as well as cell metabolism. According to a press release from Research and Markets, “this enriched knowledge, coupled with emergence of novel streams of biotechnology such as gene therapy and nanotechnology, further prospered use of cell-based technology in therapeutic treatment.”

Advancements have been made thanks to the identification of ways to use stem cells in regenerative medicine, according to the report. There has been increased coverage of such trials, and so many regenerative experts have looked to other potential fields for similar applications, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). According to the report, the demand for global regenerative medicine exceeded USD 1.7 billion in 2016, a figure that is expected to rapidly rise over the coming years as this research has lead to a strong pipeline of potential products and treatments. The study reveals that in  2016, therapeutics emerged as the largest product segment in the market, owing to it’s high rate of usage and  implementation. Where global regenerative services are concerned, demand for facilities such as tissue banks and cellular engineering tools is “expected to drive demand in the segment”.

Another key finding in the report was the impact that the emergence of gene therapy techniques has had on the industry. This has been a major driver, as treatments “Regenerative medicine grabs the attention of the healthcare industry owing to its promising applications along with significant advances in supportive fields including tissue engineering, stem cells, gene therapy, drug discovery and nanotechnology,” reads a report summary. “For instance, 3D printing over scaffold with stem cells to restore structure as well as functional characteristics of biological cells, tissues, and organs.Biologics, individually or in combination with cells or devices, are explored to support regenerate the biological functions of cells, tissues, or organs. A number of combinatorial therapies to support chemotherapy and other cancer treatments by prevention as well as treatment for cancer relapse are in development phases. In addition, rising prevalence of complicated degenerative disorders such as age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease, especially in the aging population resulted in high investments in R&D to develop therapeutic solutions.”