Struggling With Menopause? New Stem Cell Treatments Can Help

After stem cells from bone marrow were injected into the ovaries of 33 women, the scientific community is hopeful that the new treatment may be able to help reverse the effects of early menopause and even allow women to continue having children naturally. The trial focused on women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and after just six months of treatment, they began having periods again.

To understand the far-reaching effects of the new treatment, we must first understand the extent to which menopause and POF can affect women.

When occurring after the age of 40, menopause is a normal condition. It marks the end of a woman’s reproductive years as her body stops releasing an egg every month. Unfortunately, while natural, it can induce several uncomfortable changes in the body including slowed metabolism, weight gain, mood changes, hot flashes, thinning hair and dry skin.

When menopause occurs before the age of 40, it’s considered premature ovarian failure (also known as primary ovarian insufficiency). Women affected by POF can become infertile and develop dementia, depression, anxiety, heart disease and osteoporosis.

Until now, there were no fertility treatments that could help the 1 in every 100 women suffering with POF. Some doctors prescribe hormonal replacements to treat other symptoms of POF but even then, their chances of having children are reduced by half and the injection regimes are difficult to keep up with. Other women seek egg donors but, because of religious, cultural, ethnic, or monetary reasons, many women aren’t able to.

The aim of the pioneering stem cell research by US scientists was to ‘‘support improvement in quality of life and reverse infertility’ and so far, it looks like they’ve done just that. Their findings were presented at the Society of Reproductive Investigation in San Diego, California in early March and while the study is ongoing, the results are cause for celebration.

Women who received stem cell injections experienced increased oestrogen levels, symptoms from hot flashes and insomnia decreased, and after six months, their periods began again. What’s more, no complications or safety issues have been reported making it an extremely viable option for women going forward.

Dr Kate Maclaran and Dr Marie Gerval of the Daisy Network charity agree, saying: ‘This study offers hope for women with POI that in the future, they may be able to conceive naturally or have fertility treatment using their own eggs.’

Dr Christos Coutifaris, president of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (who was not involved in the study) shares the optimism of those who were involved, saying ‘‘These preliminary findings are exciting. If these observations are validated under further experimental protocols, their implications for female fertility and reproductive hormonal function may prove extremely significant.’

Through the injection of stem cells derived from bone marrow, ovarian function can be stimulated, allowing the return of ovulation and normal hormone levels as well as the possibility of pregnancy. All of the women in the study are currently trying to get pregnant and, once the research has been fully carried out, the option to use stem cell therapy as a treatment for infertility across the board will be explored.

This isn’t the first study exploring the use of stem cells in treating infertility. Back in 2009, scientists in China showed that is was possible to isolate stem cells in mice, store them, and then transplant them back into sterile females to enable them to give birth. But, in this most recent study from US researchers, patients are able to reactivate their own ovaries.

The scientific community and women everywhere are looking forward to final results from the study which will show if the women will, in fact, get pregnant as a result of stem cell injections.

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Stem Cell Therapy Becoming More Effective Treatment for Meningitis

Meningitis – a very serious disease if not treated quickly – affects upwards of one million people around the world every year according to the Confederation of Meningitis Organisations. What’s more, it’s difficult to diagnose and it most commonly affects babies, toddlers, children and teenagers.  Current treatments don’t guarantee recovery and the repercussions are life-altering, including late-onset learning difficulties, hearing loss, and general developmental delays. While scientists around the world are working tirelessly to develop and test bone marrow transplants for widespread, life-threatening diseases like cancer, scientists in Germany have been leading the way in allogeneic stem cell transplantation to treat meningitis.

Meningitis can be viral, bacterial or fungal. Bacterial is the most severe. Unfortunately, because it’s so difficult to recognize in its early stages, many children and adults are diagnosed too late and face brain damage and even death. Because common symptoms of meningitis (fever, stiff neck, drowsiness, nausea) resemble common symptoms of dozens of other, less harmful diseases, they might not be taken seriously.

In children, the symptoms are even more difficult to recognize as all signs point to a generally fussy baby rather than a sick one. New mother’s likely won’t rush to hospital because their child is especially irritable, tired, or crying, but all three are known symptoms, specifically in toddlers.

Most often, meningitis is treated one of three ways. In each case, though, doctors will usually start with broad-spectrum antibiotics. They’ll likely even prescribe the antibiotics before the test results come back as a preemptive measure. Patients can also be given a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) as quick and definitive (albeit invasive) alternative to blood tests and x-rays. In a lumbar puncture, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is collected and in patients with meningitis, the CSF will show low blood sugar, increased white blood cells, and increased levels of protein.

Patients who are confirmed to have meningitis and who aren’t stabilized with the initial course of antibiotics are often hospitalized and treated with injected antibiotics. But even that isn’t enough often times. In the US alone, 10-15 percent of those diagnosed with meningitis won’t survive and of those that do survive, 10 percent will have lingering symptoms like seizures and stroke.

Doctors in Germany were the first to use allogeneic stem cell transplantation. At a children’s hospital in Halles, Germany, a 19-year old was successfully treated, the infection was controlled, and nearly a full neurological recovery was made. It’s since been dubbed the future of meningitis treatment. In allogeneic stem cell transplantation, stem cells are collected from a matching donor, transplanted into the ailing patient, and the stem cells go to work suppressing the disease and restoring the patient’s immune system. This process is different from autologous stem cell transplants which use the stem cells from the patient’s own body. Allogenic stem cells transplants are used around the world to treat cancers such as lymphoma, myeloma, leukemia as well as other diseases of the bone marrow or immune system.

After the success of the 19-year old in Germany, doctors in Germany are keen to help foreign patients. German Medicine Net, created back in 2001 as an answer to the UK’s waiting list problem, co-operates with renowned institutions for stem cell therapy. Meningitis is regarded as a condition that can be considered for treatment. As research and clinical trials continue, the future of medicine – especially in treating meningitis – truly lies in stem cells.

Regenerative Medicine Market projected to reach $5.5 Billion

According to analysis found in a new report, “Regenerative Medicine Market, 2014 – 2025”, the global regenerative medicine market size is expected to reach USD 5.59 billion in just eight years.

This high rate of growth is being attributed in part to the increased global geriatric age, with the World Health Organization now revealing the average life expectancy to be 71.4 years (2015). This is in addition to the increased prevalence of Neurodegenerative disorders, along with Orthopedic and other aging-related disorders. As biotechnology has advanced to seek treatments for these and other illnesses, this has lead to increased investment in the field. The biotechnology has so far enabled scientists to garner more in-depth knowledge of cell division, differentiation and mutation, as well as cell metabolism. According to a press release from Research and Markets, “this enriched knowledge, coupled with emergence of novel streams of biotechnology such as gene therapy and nanotechnology, further prospered use of cell-based technology in therapeutic treatment.”

Advancements have been made thanks to the identification of ways to use stem cells in regenerative medicine, according to the report. There has been increased coverage of such trials, and so many regenerative experts have looked to other potential fields for similar applications, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). According to the report, the demand for global regenerative medicine exceeded USD 1.7 billion in 2016, a figure that is expected to rapidly rise over the coming years as this research has lead to a strong pipeline of potential products and treatments. The study reveals that in  2016, therapeutics emerged as the largest product segment in the market, owing to it’s high rate of usage and  implementation. Where global regenerative services are concerned, demand for facilities such as tissue banks and cellular engineering tools is “expected to drive demand in the segment”.

Another key finding in the report was the impact that the emergence of gene therapy techniques has had on the industry. This has been a major driver, as treatments “Regenerative medicine grabs the attention of the healthcare industry owing to its promising applications along with significant advances in supportive fields including tissue engineering, stem cells, gene therapy, drug discovery and nanotechnology,” reads a report summary. “For instance, 3D printing over scaffold with stem cells to restore structure as well as functional characteristics of biological cells, tissues, and organs.Biologics, individually or in combination with cells or devices, are explored to support regenerate the biological functions of cells, tissues, or organs. A number of combinatorial therapies to support chemotherapy and other cancer treatments by prevention as well as treatment for cancer relapse are in development phases. In addition, rising prevalence of complicated degenerative disorders such as age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease, especially in the aging population resulted in high investments in R&D to develop therapeutic solutions.”

New Research Provides Insight into How Cancers Develop

Cancer cells - 3d RenderingA study carried out by Cancer Research UK has shown that cancers need a ‘perfect storm’ of conditions to be able to develop.

Carried out at the Cambridge Institute, this research gives a clearer picture than ever before of why and how cancers develop, and why some organs are more likely to develop the disease. This research could prove invaluable in learning how to prevent and best treat many different kinds of cancer.

The researched focused on the role of stem cells, which replicate to repair damage, or create other cells that the body needs. Certain stem cells can end up with random mistakes in their DNA, or certain environmental factors can increase the likelihood of these mistakes. This includes things like smoking, drinking, and obesity – all things that we’ve long know increase the risk of cancer.

When damaged stem cells are ‘sleeping’, no cancer develops, so the stem cells with DNA mistakes aren’t able to cause cancer alone. The problem begins when these cells with DNA mistakes start to replicate, to repair some sort of damage or wear and tear. The ‘faulty’ stem cells then develop into a cancer.

For a patient to develop a cancer, there has to be a ‘perfect storm’ of factors at play. There has to be something in the body that needs to be healed, plus the stem cells with DNA mistakes to begin replicating. That’s why certain areas where the stem cells are most active, such as the colon, are common sites for cancer.

One scientific debate that this study aims to resolve is whether cancer is just down to bad luck, or whether environmental and lifestyle factors have a greater proportion of blame. The study showed that cancer requires three separate things in order to grow; tissue damage, stem cell DNA mutations, and the activation of these mutated stem cells.

Some other findings in the study included the fact that DNA mistakes in stem cells build up as you get older, which accounts for the risk of cancer being higher as you age.

To carry out the study, researchers used mice that had modified cells which produced a fluorescent green protein when ‘switched on’. This allowed them to track what happened to the cells in various organs and at different stages of their lives. For example, when the mice had damaged livers, researchers were able to see the cells divide rapidly and tumours formed.

By being able to replicate how cancers are formed, this could open up the potential of cancer research, and mean that preventative medicines and new treatments could be coming to the market.

‘Mini Organs’ Grown from Stem Cells Could Personalise Treatments For Cystic Fibrosis Patients

bd1487ce-3935-457e-830e-022a0318f97aTreatments for illnesses such as cancer and cystic fibrosis could soon become more personalised, thanks to a technique that grows organoids from stem cells.

When being treated for serious illnesses, many patients will suffer side effects from their medication, and it’s not always possible to predict how the body will react, or how effective treatment will be. By taking a sample of stem cells, researchers at University Medical Centre Utrecht have been able to grow ‘mini organs’ known as organoids. They can then test different drug combinations on these organoids, and see how they react.

These experiments give doctors a much clearer picture of how effective certain treatments will be. It means that they don’t have to rely on the results of clinical trials, and can personalise medicine to each patient’s needs. This is especially helpful in cases of Cystic Fibrosis, where there often aren’t enough patients to carry out effective studies.

So far, doctors in the Netherlands have treated 1,500 patients with this technique, and have successfully helped many cystic fibrosis sufferers. It’s also beginning to be utilised in cancer cases.

Only one biopsy is needed to harvest the stem cells, and the same sample can be used over and over, which means fewer tests for the patient. Not only can they build one organoid and run tests, but researchers can build an entire mini-system to see how different organs might react to various medicines.

Professor Dr Kors van der Ent, who is heading the research, told the Daily Express “Some of these patients were waiting for lung transplants, but can now be found on the hockey pitch again thanks to the right medication. Their lives have completely changed.”

This news again shows the potential that stem cells have to treat diseases, and give patients a better quality of life.

Human bodies fail with age. Science can finally overcome this built-in obsolescence

Human bodies are the product of millions of years of evolution and they are far from perfect. There are lots of things that nature could have done better. Things fail. However, our ancestors lived through the failings and so will we. Or perhaps not.

Developments in science in the form of stem cell therapy mean that damaged organs can now be repaired. Thus avoiding the natural lead to death.

In simple terms, if any organ or part of a human body is infected by disease, the human body will naturally react to defend itself. It will deploy white blood cells and body temperature will increase. If the body fails to destroy the micro-organisms causing the disease then the microbes will produce toxic substances and the infected organ will fail. If this is a major organ then the body will take a big hit.

A failed heart will lead to reduced cardiac output and difficulties in pumping blood through the body. A failed brain can lead to paralysis and the damage can affect other organs. Failed kidneys can lead to the inability to remove potassium from the bloodstream, which in turn can lead to abnormal heart rhythms and potentially sudden death.

Stem cell therapy can fix damaged organs and can therefore prevent a body from failing.

Cell Therapy Ltd is developing regenerative medicines that will save lives. They have an extremely unique approach towards stem cell therapy, in that, they haven’t just found one stem cell to fix all ailments, as have other stem cell companies, but they have actually been successful in pin pointing very rare and potent tissue specific stem cells. This unprecedented class of cells is then engineered into unique disease-specific cellular regenerative medicines whereby each medicine is disease specific. Thus enabling the treatment of different parts of the body with unique and precise treatment.

Science can most definitely overcome the human body’s obsolescence. If stem cell therapy can fix damaged organs rather than simply just prevent them from getting worse, as current medicine can only achieve, then humans can live longer and healthier and quality of life can be improved. Science can indeed stop bodies from failing.

Cancer is a result of a default cellular ‘safe mode,’ physicist proposes

See on Scoop.itInteresting Innovation

With death rates from cancer have remained largely unchanged over the past 60 years, a physicist is trying to shed more light on the disease with a very different theory of its origin that traces cancer back to the dawn of multicellularity more…

See on www.sciencedaily.com