Stem Cell Research Holds Possibilities for Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Scientists in Glasgow have made a breakthrough, which could make a big difference to sufferers of diabetes by helping to treat their foot ulcers.

Foot ulcers are a common side effect of diabetes caused by nerve and blood vessel damage. An estimated 15% of diabetes patients develop foot ulcers as a result of the condition.

The impact of foot ulcers can be severe – for some patients the severity of the ulcers eventually leads to amputation.

Hope for Treatment

This latest study carried out by researchers at the Glasgow Caledonian University has managed to reprogramme human cells using leftover skin tissue from surgery to replicate wounds from diabetic foot ulcers.

The team used donor skin tissue samples from people with type 2 diabetes. From these they created batches of human stem cells ready to be reprogrammed into different types of cells including brain and nerve cells. It is hoped that in the future these cells will be able to be used to repair tissue and skin damage resulting from foot ulcers, and hopefully prevent the need for amputation.

The research is part of a three-year project funded by Animal Free Research UK who is hoping to develop new treatments for foot ulcers that do not need to be tested on animals, as currently is the case.

Professor Ann Graham, lead author of the study said:

“Over 135 diabetes-related amputations are carried out each week in the UK. We know that this is a growing problem and we hope that our work can inform research and aid others who require access to human material for medical research.”

Future research by the team will examine the links between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease, as well as diabetic wound healing and psoriasis.

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Are stem cells the link between bacteria and cancer?

Is there A link between stem cells, bacteria and cancer?

 

Scientists have long believed that an increase in stem cell turnover plays a part in the development of cancer, and now new research has uncovered findings that could strengthen the link.

A study was carried out by the Max Planck Institute in Berlin in conjunction with researchers in Stanford, California, and examined the presence of bacteria and it’s impact on stem cell regeneration. The survival rate for stomach cancer is low, mainly because patients don’t present any symptoms until the cancer has reached an advanced stage. Stomach cancer, or gastric cancer, is caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is naturally present in all humans. However, this bacteria acts differently to tumour viruses, leaving scientists in the dark as to how they actually cause cancer. The new research has revealed that this bacterium “sends stem cell renewal in the stomach into overdrive”, a discovery that could open doors to further understanding the cause and therefore treatment of stomach cancer.

About the research

The study confirmed that in the majority of cases, patients with most  stomach cancer experience chronic infections with H. pylori bacterium.

Prof. Dr. Thomas F. Meyer specialises in molecular biology, and worked alongside

fellow researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin. Having spent many years examining the impact H. pylori has on the stomach’s epithelium cells, the team were in search of answers as to why cancer was able to form in an environment in which cells are being replenished so rapidly. As stem cells are the longest living cells in the stomach, the researchers began their search for answers here. While it had previously been believed that H. pylori affected only the rapidly-replaced surface cells, but the research revealed that the bacteria managed to infiltrate the stem cells, causing them to rapidly multiply.

The team arrived at this conclusion following tracing the behaviour of two different types of stem cells in the stomach of mice. According to Science News Online:

Both respond to a signalling molecule called Wnt, which maintains stem cell turnover in many adult tissues. Crucially, they discovered that myofibroblast cells in the connective tissue layer directly underneath the glands produce a second stem cell driver signal, R-spondin, to which the two stem cell populations responded differently. It is this signal, which turned out to control the response to H. pylori: Following infection, the signal is ramped up, silencing the more slowly cycling stem cell population and putting the faster cycling stem cell population into overdrive.

According to one of the study authors and clinical scientist Michael Sigal, these results substantiate the theory that chronic bacterial infections are strongly linked with cases of stomach. “Our findings show that an infectious bacterium can increase stem cell turnover,” he says. “Since H. pylori causes lifelong infections, the constant increase in stem cell divisions may be enough to explain the increased risk of carcinogenesis observed.”

Regenerative Medicine Market projected to reach $5.5 Billion

According to analysis found in a new report, “Regenerative Medicine Market, 2014 – 2025”, the global regenerative medicine market size is expected to reach USD 5.59 billion in just eight years.

This high rate of growth is being attributed in part to the increased global geriatric age, with the World Health Organization now revealing the average life expectancy to be 71.4 years (2015). This is in addition to the increased prevalence of Neurodegenerative disorders, along with Orthopedic and other aging-related disorders. As biotechnology has advanced to seek treatments for these and other illnesses, this has lead to increased investment in the field. The biotechnology has so far enabled scientists to garner more in-depth knowledge of cell division, differentiation and mutation, as well as cell metabolism. According to a press release from Research and Markets, “this enriched knowledge, coupled with emergence of novel streams of biotechnology such as gene therapy and nanotechnology, further prospered use of cell-based technology in therapeutic treatment.”

Advancements have been made thanks to the identification of ways to use stem cells in regenerative medicine, according to the report. There has been increased coverage of such trials, and so many regenerative experts have looked to other potential fields for similar applications, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). According to the report, the demand for global regenerative medicine exceeded USD 1.7 billion in 2016, a figure that is expected to rapidly rise over the coming years as this research has lead to a strong pipeline of potential products and treatments. The study reveals that in  2016, therapeutics emerged as the largest product segment in the market, owing to it’s high rate of usage and  implementation. Where global regenerative services are concerned, demand for facilities such as tissue banks and cellular engineering tools is “expected to drive demand in the segment”.

Another key finding in the report was the impact that the emergence of gene therapy techniques has had on the industry. This has been a major driver, as treatments “Regenerative medicine grabs the attention of the healthcare industry owing to its promising applications along with significant advances in supportive fields including tissue engineering, stem cells, gene therapy, drug discovery and nanotechnology,” reads a report summary. “For instance, 3D printing over scaffold with stem cells to restore structure as well as functional characteristics of biological cells, tissues, and organs.Biologics, individually or in combination with cells or devices, are explored to support regenerate the biological functions of cells, tissues, or organs. A number of combinatorial therapies to support chemotherapy and other cancer treatments by prevention as well as treatment for cancer relapse are in development phases. In addition, rising prevalence of complicated degenerative disorders such as age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease, especially in the aging population resulted in high investments in R&D to develop therapeutic solutions.”

Researchers find new way to kill cancer stem cells

For the scientific community, looking for ways to combat cancer continues to be a challenge, albeit one that has experienced a number of breakthroughs in recent years and even months.

cells

Researchers in Penn State recently found that grape-based compounds can kill colon cancer stem cells, after conducting petri-dish trials and trials on mine. In Salford, Manchester, researchers found that a combination of vitamin C and antibiotics can knock out cancer stem cells. Now just last week, researchers in Canada’s McMaster University have identified a unique feature of cancer stem cells, which could potentially play a vital role in the development of more targeted cancer treatments.

How existing drugs can kill deadly cancer stem cells

In a study published in Cell Chemical Biology, research reveals that an existing series of drugs has proved effective in killing off cancer stem cells.

It is thought that these stem cells play in part in the recurrence of cancer following treatment, and so using these drugs may be able to help patients stay cancer free. These drugs are thought to be able to attack these cancer cells thanks to the presence of a protein called Sam68. According to Mick Bhatia, the study’s principal investigator and scientific director of the McMaster Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute, the findings are helping the team uncover how stem cells function in cancerous human tumours. “The drugs helped us to understand the biology,” he writes. “We’ve worked backwards, employing a series of drugs used in the clinic to understand a new way that cancer stem cells can be killed.”

It is the hope of Bhatia that this breakthrough will enable those being treated for cancer to receive more targeted, relevant therapy. While patients undergoing treatment for breast cancer currently receive targeted treatments depending on the type of disease, therapies for cancers for example do not. “In the case of breast cancer, other researchers have found new ways to make existing drugs more effective by only giving them to people who were likely to benefit based on their specific traits and using drugs that target these traits,” said Bhatia.

Stem cells help recovery from prostate surgery

It is relatively common for men recovering from prostate surgery to experience erectile dysfunction during recovery. Research shows that up to 80% of men have difficulty having sex in the months following the operation.

erectile

A clinical trial is pointing to the possibility of stem cells being used to help treat erectile dysfunction in these cases.

In the first-phase of clinical trials, eight out of 15 men who were unable to have an erection after their prostate surgery, had sex six months after one-time treatment of stem cells.

The procedure involves removing fat cells from a patient’s abdomen via liposuction. After a specialised treatment, these are transformed into all-purpose stem cells.

The stem cells are then injected into the penis, where they begin to change in to nerve and muscle cells, as well as the endothelial cells that line blood vessels.

The 12 month follow up showed that the success of the treatment was ongoing.

 “As far as we know, this is the first time that a human study with a 12-month follow up shows that the treatment is lasting and safe,” said Lars Lund, a professor at Odense University hospital in Denmark.

 “That is much better than taking a pill every time you want to have intercourse,” he said.

The study has been so successful, that the next stage, a double- blind randomised trial has been approved. This study will include a placebo group

Only men recovering from prostate cancer and able to control their bladders will be enrolled in the new experiments, Lund explained.

First ‘Haploid’ Stem Cells Could Mean Major Breakthrough for Medical Research

Human embryonic stem cells which have the potential to turn into any cell in the human body have been shown to have huge benefit over recent decades in everything from restoring eyesight, to treating multiple sclerosis.

‘Normal’ human cells are diploid, which means that they contain chromosomes from both parents – these don’t have the ability to divide into more cells.

Many attempts have been made to create haploid human embryonic stem cells – just containing the chromosomes from one parent – but until now this had only been successful in non-human animals such as mice, rats and monkeys.

However, this goal appear to have been reached by a research team at the Center for Stem Cells and Genetic Research at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The team, lead by Ido Sagi achieved the first successful isolation and maintenance of haploid embryonic stem cells in humans. These cells were able to differentiate into many other cell types such as heart, brain and pancreas whilst retaining a single set of chromosomes.

This breakthrough is set to have huge implications on stem cell research and understanding of human development.

It will also make genetic screening easier and more precise, as well as giving scientists a further insight into the mechanisms of human sexual reproduction. It will also allow further research into resistance to chemotherapy, which could have huge future benefits within the use of personalised cancer therapy.

NewStem

 As a result of the breakthrough, the university created a company called NewStem, which is developing a diagnostic kit for predicting resistance to chemotherapy treatments.

The team hopes that by collecting a wide spectrum of human pluripotent stem cells with different genetic makeups, NewStem will be able to develop diagnostic kits for personalised treatments.

 

 

 

 

 

Stem Cell Breakthrough: Human Blood Stem Cells Grown For First Time

In one of the biggest breakthroughs in stem cell technology in recent years, scientists in the U.S have found a way to create human blood stem cells in a laboratory.

This could mean a huge step forward for the treatment of blood diseases and leukaemia in the future.

The Studies

Two separate studies in the U.S appear to have proven this possibility.

The first team, lead by George Daley, began by studying human pluripotent stem cells – a type of cell which can transform into any other cell in the body.

They then identified proteins which control the genes involved in blood production, and applied them to the stem cells. It was found that when five specific proteins were used together, they encouraged the stem cells to become blood stem cells. These stem cells were then transferred to mice, where they went on to produce new red and white blood cells and platelets.

The second team, at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York achieved similar results with stem cells taken from animals’ lungs. In this case, four different factors were founds to encourage their transformation into blood stem cells, which produced the same result when transferred into mice.

Great Possibilities

The results of the study could be monumental in the treatment of blood diseases and leukaemia. The ability to grow blood stem cells in a lab from an individual’s own cells would remove the need for bone marrow transplants from a donor.

Finding a blood marrow donor can be notoriously difficult – unless an immediate member of the family is identified as a match, the chances of finding a stranger who is a match are very low. They could also be used to create blood for transfusions.

“Both sets of results represent a “breakthrough”, says Carolina Guibentif at the University of Cambridge. “This is something people have been trying to achieve for a long time”

A Way to Go

Although results look very hopeful, the lab-made cells are not yet ready for use on humans. They are not yet as effective as cells in the body at making blood, there is still a risk that the cells could mutate and cause cancer.

However, Daley hopes that this procedure will be honed and could be ready to be used within the next couple of years.

The ultimate hope would be to be able to create a whole blood supply suitable for transfusions. Not only would such a supply be more reliable than that from donors, but it would also be free of disease.

When new pathogens like Zika pop up, you have to make sure that blood is safe,” says Daley. “We’d be able to have more quality control.”